Soqpsk. Ternary signal. In telecommunication, a ternary signal is a sign...

The resulting simulated plot is shown in the Figure 2.

SOQPSK, SGLS AM/FSK, digital ranging, and user de ned > Multi-band operation available > Output power 10 mW to 5 W L-/S-band (optional 20 W available) > Small form factor, scales with desired functions > High-reliability design analyses > Quali ed for typical launch environments > Available RF assemblies withTo automatically configure the VSA for measuring signals that conform to the IRIG 106-04 standard, on the Format tab, click Preset to Standard > Other and select SOQPSK-TG (IRIG 106-04). Note that the SOQPSK-TG preset sets the symbol rate to 5 MHz Megahertz: A unit of frequency equal to one million hertz or cycles per second. although the ...Shaped offset quadrature phase shift keying (SOQPSK) modulation scheme and its application in optical wavelength-division multiplexed (DWDM) transmission. This …(SOQPSK-TG), and the Advanced Range Telemetry (ARTM) continuous phase modulation (CPM). Each of these methods offer constant, or nearly constant, envelope characteristics andIn the presence of frequency selective multipath interference typically encountered in aeronautical telemetry, both equalization techniques are shown to provide reliable performance for FQPSK and SOQPSK-TG. The performance of both waveforms with the DF-MMSE equalizer is slightly better than that using the CMA equalizer. …Guided Tutorial PSK Demodulation. In this tutorial, we will be focused on simulation rather than over-the-air transmission. It will discuss many of the issues involved with what goes on when transmitting and receiving signals with real hardware and channel effects. We will go through setting up our simulation and then step-by-step how to ...Real Time. Custom IQ - ARTM Multi-h CPM. Quick Setups. Use this drop-down menu to select a modulation type from several supported formats. A single data segment using that modulation type appears in the segment list below. Click the cell in the Constellation column to open the Constellation Setting window, providing a graphical display and editing …The SOQPSK is defined by(2)ESOQPSK=A(t)cos[2πf0t+ϕ(t,α)]where(3)ϕ(t,α)=π2∫-∞t∑i=-∞+∞αig(τ-iTb)dτ,-∞<t<+∞The information-bearing phase ϕ(t, α) is determined by the 3-ary sequence αi = −1, 0, 1 and the unit-area frequency pulse g(t).A detector architecture capable of detecting both shaped offset quadrature phase shift keying (SOQPSK-TG) and Feher's quadrature phase shift keying (FQPSK-JR) is developed and analyzed. Both modulations are embodied as fully interoperable modulations in the Interrange Instrumentation Group (IRIG) standard IRIG-106. It is shown that the …Key Features. Versatile Rack-Mount Enclosure with USB Interface: Compact 1U 19” rack-mount chassis provides a single-box receiver analyzer solution, with USB plug and play; RA 3.0 extends capability and performance dramatically using existing fielded hardware Internal Signal Generators: Includes two complete ARTM signal generators covering 200 …A Novel Approach for Embedding Communication Symbols into Physical Radar Waveforms Cenk Sahin 1, John Jakabosky2, 3, Patrick M. McCormick , Justin G. Metcalf and Shannon D. Blunt3 1 Sensors Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH 2 Radar Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 3 Department …Looking for online definition of SOQPSK or what SOQPSK stands for? SOQPSK is listed in the World's most authoritative dictionary of abbreviations and acronyms The Free DictionaryData filtering is used in digital demodulation to limit bandwidth and reduce intersymbol interference. This VSA includes several commonly used filter types and has the ability to apply user-defined filters. All filters are computed to 20 symbols in length by default. If the filter alpha is < 0.4, the VSA uses extended filter length (40 symbols ... This object applies offset quadrature phase shift keying (OQPSK) modulation and pulse shape filtering to the input signal. oqpskmod = comm.OQPSKModulator (demod) creates a modulator System object with symmetric configuration to the OQPSK demodulator object, demod. oqpskmod = comm.OQPSKModulator (Name,Value) sets properties using one or more ...SOQPSK MSLD ~ 0.9dB better that Multi-H MSLD. Note the above BER performance is for data without differential encoding and without randomization. Differential ...Feb 12, 2019 · SOQPSK is a spectrum-efficient constant envelope modulation well suited for operation through power amplifiers near saturation. Flexible programmable features: …SOQPSK variants are listed in Table 1 and the resulting pulse shapes and spectra are plotted in Figures 2 and 3. For comparison purposes, MIL-STD-188-182 SOQPSK, which uses a rectangular frequency pulse, is also included. The dramatic reduction in sidelobe energy makes SOQPSK-A and SOQPSK-B very attractive for terrestrial,SOQPSK-TG STC : A new decoding scheme for a higher bit rate and a better budget link Summary To protect telemetry from antenna masking during flight tests, two antennae must be used on-board. To ...The need for changing over to digital scheme is brought out, continuous phase modulation (CPM) is studied and Shaped Offset Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (SOQPSK-TG) is analyzed. limited RF spectrum. As the spectrum is being vied by the commercial users, the necessity arises to make use of the available spectrum more judiciously. Bandwidth restrictions have led the designers’ world over to ... Figure 7: SOQPSK with APSK Interferers These spacings however, do not appear to be an improvement over the ideal channel spacing for SOQPSK-TG with SOQPSK-TG which is shown to be 1.1 Hz/R s [6]. These spacings in normal-ized frequency are independent of the coderate and constellation used, however the actual spacing Quasonix is recognized as the industry leader for spectrally efficient modulations such as SOQPSK-TG and Multi-h (ARTM) CPM and for ongoing innovation in the field of telemetry. Our product line includes multi-mode telemetry transmitters; multi-mode, multi-symbol trellis telemetry demodulators; complete multi-mode telemetry receivers; rack ... (SOQPSK-TG), and the Advanced Range Telemetry (ARTM) continuous phase modulation (CPM). Each of these methods offer constant, or nearly constant, envelope characteristics and For added convenience, you can save the VSA setup as a quick setup in the VSA's Custom IQ Demod Property window. To do this, recall the Signal Studio VSA setup file, perform the measurement, and then click Save As Quick Setup.Now, whenever you click Quick Setups, you will find your previously saved setup listed among the other setups provided with the …Tier I SOQPSK-TG and Tier II Multi-h CPM. The transmitter's design combines ... SOQPSK-TG: Per IRIG 106-13 Quaternary Spectral Mask (Tier 1). MULTI-h/CPM ...Feb 12, 2019 · SOQPSK is a spectrum-efficient constant envelope modulation well suited for operation through power amplifiers near saturation. Flexible programmable features: …This object applies offset quadrature phase shift keying (OQPSK) modulation and pulse shape filtering to the input signal. oqpskmod = comm.OQPSKModulator (demod) creates a modulator System object with symmetric configuration to the OQPSK demodulator object, demod. oqpskmod = comm.OQPSKModulator (Name,Value) sets properties using one or more ...From a mathematical perspective, an eye pattern is a visualization of the probability density function (PDF) of the signal, modulo the unit interval (UI). In other words, it shows the probability of the signal being at each possible voltage across the duration of the UI. Typically a color ramp is applied to the PDF in order to make small ...The resulting simulated plot is shown in the Figure 2. From the resulting constellation diagram, following conclusions can be reached. Conventional QPSK has 180° phase transitions and hence it requires linear amplifiers with high Q factor. The phase transitions of Offset-QPSK are limited to 90° (the 180° phase transitions are eliminated)Jul 15, 2020 · SOQPSK-TG STC : A new decoding scheme for a higher bit rate and a better budget link Summary To protect telemetry from antenna masking during flight tests, two antennae must be used on-board. To ... SOQPSK-TG with respect to PCM-FM are shown in Fig. 7. We have utilized 4 Mbps data rate that is a comparable number for video, audio and other data streams required for digital telemetry [6]. It ...SOQPSK SOQPSK-TG TELEMETRY Tier transmitter upgrade Uses. compact-rdms-gen-3 rackmount-rdms-gen-3 receivers-demodulators: datasheets: RDMS™ Rackmount Receiver Datasheet (Gen 3) Apr-2023: Features, specifications, and options of the Gen 3 Rackmount RDMS™ Telemetry Receiver. 1U 3U Adaptive best bit Bits channel Chassis Clock Coding Combiner ... as MIL-STD SOQPSK after it was adopted as part of a military standard. The frequency-shaping pulse for MIL-STD SOQPSK in its continuous phase modulation (CPM) representation is rectangular, and it lasts one bit interval. Later on more spectrally efficient versions of SOQPSK were developed in [2,3], and 1Communications Systems and Research Section.SOQPSK. The license-free shaped-offset QPSK (SOQPSK) is interoperable with Feher-patented QPSK (FQPSK), in the sense that an integrate-and-dump offset QPSK detector produces the same output no matter which kind of transmitter is used. pulse shapes for SOQPSK-A and SOQPSK-B, as well as an infinite set of similar, and interoperable, waveforms. The specific values for SOQPSK-A and SOQPSK-B are listed in Table 1 and the resulting pulse shapes and spectra are plotted in Figures 2 and 3. For comparison purposes, the spectrum of the MIL-STD-188-182 SOQPSK, which uses a The QPSK transceiver model in this script is divided into the following four main components. 1) QPSKTransmitter.m: generates the bit stream and then encodes, modulates and filters it. 2) QPSKChannel.m: models the channel with carrier …SOQPSK. The license-free shaped-offset QPSK (SOQPSK) is interoperable with Feher-patented QPSK (FQPSK), in the sense that an integrate-and-dump offset QPSK detector produces the same output no matter which kind of transmitter is used. See moreThis paper is devoted to the practical side of the SOQPSK transmitter realization. It describes detailed model of one of possible variants of transmitter ...In the part I companion paper we showed that the tier 1 waveforms FQPSK-JR and SOQPSK-TG - can both be viewed as either an XTCQM or a CPM (although the CPM representation of FQPSK-JR is only an approximation). In this paper we examine the performance of three architectures for a common detector: a symbol-by-symbol detector, …Oct 1, 2013 · The SOQPSK is defined by(2)ESOQPSK=A(t)cos[2πf0t+ϕ(t,α)]where(3)ϕ(t,α)=π2∫-∞t∑i=-∞+∞αig(τ-iTb)dτ,-∞<t<+∞The information-bearing phase ϕ(t, α) is determined by the 3-ary sequence αi = −1, 0, 1 and the unit-area frequency pulse g(t). about 10-5) for 5 Mb/s PCM/FM, SOQPSK-TG, and multi-h CPM with several interfering bit rates (interfering bit rate and modulation method are shown in the legend (5MDFM is 5 Mb/s PCM/FM)) and several frequency spacings. The solid horizontal line shows the BEP at 0.5 dB degradation. Figures 7 and 8 show the results of similar tests for 8 Mb/s ...Real Time. Custom IQ - ARTM Multi-h CPM. Quick Setups. Use this drop-down menu to select a modulation type from several supported formats. A single data segment using that modulation type appears in the segment list below. Click the cell in the Constellation column to open the Constellation Setting window, providing a graphical display and editing …SOQPSK, and Tier II SOQPSK. These encouraging results have led to a hardware implementation of a CMA equalizer. This paper presents the latest results from this work. KEY WORDS Adaptive Equalization, CMA, PCM/FM, Tier 1, SOQPSK, Tier II, Multi-h CPM INTRODUCTION The objective of this effort is to evaluate the benefit of adding adaptive ... Constant envelope signals such as MSK, GMSK have been widely used in satellite system for their power and spectral efficiency. Shaped Offset Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (SOQPSK) belongs to excellent Continuous Phase Modulation (CPM) waveforms. With constant envelope and continuous phase, SOQPSK signal has both high power and …Data filtering is used in digital demodulation to limit bandwidth and reduce intersymbol interference. This VSA includes several commonly used filter types and has the ability to apply user-defined filters. All filters are computed to 20 symbols in length by default. If the filter alpha is < 0.4, the VSA uses extended filter length (40 symbols ...Best SOQPSK-TG detection in the Industry, yielding improvements of 2 dB or more over the competition’s single-symbol detectors; True multi-symbol trellis detection all three ARTM modes for optimal demodulation; 3.5 to 5 dB improvement in PCM/FM performance vs. the best single-symbol demodulators, to within 0.2 dB of the theoretical limit ...Stack Exchange network consists of 183 Q&A communities including Stack Overflow, the largest, most trusted online community for developers to learn, share their knowledge, and build their careers.. Visit Stack ExchangeSymbol Timing Recovery for SOQPSK 21 Normalized timing variance • Accuracy of the feedback scheme measured numerically via simulation for the two versions of SOQPSK. • Simulations done for four cases: • SOQPSK-MIL with Loop BW 1x10-3 and 1x10-2. • SOQPSK-TG with Loop BW 1x10-3 and 1x10-2 along with PT. This paper investigates the use of shaped offset quadrature phase shift keying (SOQPSK) signals in multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) communication systems. The goal is to integrate commonly ...outputs the soft decisions. In addition, it feeds a priori reliability information to the first SOQPSK SOVA decoder. A priori information is punctured and permuted by the interleaver before entering the SOQPSK SOVA decoder. Thus, by using two SOVA decoders in the receiver chain to operate on both inner and outer codes, the overall SNR can be ... (SOQPSK-TG), and the Advanced Range Telemetry (ARTM) continuous phase modulation (CPM). Each of these methods offer constant, or nearly constant, envelope characteristics andXu, Zhengguang. This paper presents a new quaternary modulation scheme called SOQPSK. The principle on the optical SOQPSK generation is derived and analyzed, which is implemented by traditional Mach-Zehnder modulators. The performance of the optical SOQPSK modulated system is evaluated and compared with those of quadrature phase shift keying ...about 10-5) for 5 Mb/s PCM/FM, SOQPSK-TG, and multi-h CPM with several interfering bit rates (interfering bit rate and modulation method are shown in the legend (5MDFM is 5 Mb/s PCM/FM)) and several frequency spacings. The solid horizontal line shows the BEP at 0.5 dB degradation. Figures 7 and 8 show the results of similar tests for 8 Mb/s ...CSS-905A Airborne Transmitter. The L3Harris CSS-905A is a multimode S-band telemetry transmitter. Its compact, power-efficient, low-weight, 4.2-cubic-inch design is ideal for missiles, aircraft, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and munitions. This proven transmitter design, which provides high shock, vibration and acceleration performance, is ...17‏/06‏/2020 ... In this PhD thesis, we focus on shaped offset quadrature phase-shift keying telemetry group. (SOQPSK-TG) whose use is getting more and more ...tcpdump -i wlan0 dst 192.168.1.1 : capture traffic at interface “wlan0” with destination IP 192.168.1.1. tcpdump “src port 22” and “dst host 1.2.3.4” : tcpdump command with boolean ...SOQPSK. The license-free shaped-offset QPSK (SOQPSK) is interoperable with Feher-patented QPSK (FQPSK), in the sense that an integrate-and-dump offset QPSK detector produces the same output no matter which kind of transmitter is used. See moreSOQPSK, known as “MIL-STD” SOQPSK [2], uses a full-response (L = 1) rectangular frequency pulse (1REC). A version of SOQPSK recently adopted in aeronautical telemetry, known as “SOQPSK-TG,” uses a partial-response (L > 1) frequency pulse shape defined in [ 3]. The modulation index for all versions of SOQPSK is h = 1/2. I'm trying to build an SOQPSK-TG signal in MATLAB/Octave. I am following this paper for formulas. I'm trying to generate a waveform for the phase, equation 2.4: Where q(t) is the phase pulse, equation 2.3: f is the partial-response frequency pulse (L=8 for SOQPSK-TG): and w is the window function: for SOQPSK-TG, we have the following values:SOQPSK-TG STC : A new decoding scheme for a higher bit rate and a better budget link Summary To protect telemetry from antenna masking during flight tests, two antennae must be used on-board. To ...TLDR. This paper reports the bandwidth efficiency of SOQPSK for S-band airborne data links working at 4 Mbps rate and shows that the SOQ PSK-TG is the more bandwidth …A proposed Extensible SOQPSK modulation waveform brings the best of both OFDM modulation and single-carrier SOQPSK modulation to telemetry applications.SR = 2048 / (3 x 0.75 ) = 910.2 ksps. Many modern satellite modems will calculate your symbol rate in the configuration pages. Comtech CDM-625 Symbol Rate Config. Symbol and Baud rates are the number of symbol changes per second made to a signal. Calculate Symbol Rate and Baud Rate, equation, examples and online calculator.附件里两篇文章都是SOQPSK的经典技术文章。. SOQPSK是目前美国空军测控系统里常用的调制技术,国内也开始慢慢进行研究和技术转化。. · 各位大神,通信线路迁改工程的割接阻断... · 考中级通信工程师如果作弊被抓到了会怎... · 通信线路迁改主干(一、二级 ...The simulation results for SOQPSK-TG with a CMA equalizer show that the post-equalizer BER for the two approaches is the same. This dissertation explores the role of polarization, combining, and equalization operating over frequency-selective channels to improve the reliability of wireless communications systems in terms of BER for two ...differential encoder, an SOQPSK precoder, and a CPM modulator. Therefore, the transmission model is the same as in [9], except that the present CPM modulator has a shaped frequency pulse and thus outputs 1We emphasize that SOQPSK, like other CPMs, is a nonlinear modulation format. In the present context, the word shaped refers to the L3Harris is a premier manufacturer of missile and aircraft flight test instrumentation and complete airborne turnkey systems. Our airborne telemetry and flight test products gather and process critical information aboard spacecraft, aircraft, missiles, guided weapons, targets and UAVs. These products are used in defense and aerospace programs ...SOQPSK-B Figure 3. SOQPSK frequency pulse shapes. The total duration of the frequency pulse, after application of the raised cosine window, is T1 + T2. This time span is four symbol periods for SOQPSK-B and only two periods for SOQPSK-A, so the ŒA version could be implemented in a lookup table only half the size of that needed for the ŒB ... Feb 12, 2019 · SOQPSK is a spectrum-efficient constant envelope modulation well suited for operation through power amplifiers near saturation. Flexible programmable features: …A Matlab code for the "Maximum Likelihood Sequence Detection" for any CPM modulation (GMSK-RECT-RC....) using the Viterbi Algorithm. This work is based on the book: ' Digital Communication (Proakis)', and thesis: Comparison of Noncoherent detectors for SOQPSK and GMSK in Phase Noise Channels. How to cite this Work ?SOQPSK describes a family of constant-envelope modulations, all of which are a derivative of, and interoperable with, the SOQPSK waveform defined in MIL-STD-188-181 and 188-182. In general terms, all members of the SOQPSK family can be thought of as offset QPSK, modified so that the 90-degree phase transitions are smooth, and always on the unit ... PHD2 Guiding. Contribute to OpenPHDGuiding/phd2 development by creating an account on GitHub.Abstract. This paper presents the results of laboratory experiments using a commercial-off-the-shelf software defined radio to demodulate SOQPSK-TG for aeronautical telemetry. Using the NI USRP N210 and Zynq™ processor, we achieved 900 kbits/s demodulation and found that the USRP N210 has a signal sensitivity of -71 dBm at a BER of 10⁻⁶.Oct 9, 2023 · cently shaped offset quadrature phase shift keying (SOQPSK) is introduced as a bandwidth efficient modulation technique. In this paper, we report the bandwidth …Ternary signal. In telecommunication, a ternary signal is a signal that can assume, at any given instant, one of three states or significant conditions, such as power level, phase position, pulse duration, or frequency . Examples of ternary signals are (a) a pulse that can have a positive, zero, or negative voltage value at any given instant ...Aug 17, 2016 · A QPSK system can use a baseband signal of the same frequency, yet it transmits two bits during each symbol period. Thus, its bandwidth efficiency is (ideally) higher by a factor of two. This technical brief covers the basic characteristics of a digital modulation scheme known as quadrature phase shift keying. May 17, 2014 · Shaped Offset Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (SOQPSK) belongs to excellent Continuous Phase Modulation (CPM) waveforms. With constant envelope and …However, it's known that the link quality of an SC-based system such as SOQPSK-TG (Telemetry Group) deteriorates noticeably in a wireless channel with multipath, especially in time-varying multipath channels. Over decades of research efforts, various channel-equalization algorithms for QAM and other SC modulations have been proposed and utilized.QPSK-using-MATLAB. Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK) is a form of Phase Shift Keying in which two bits are modulated at once, selecting one of four possible carrier phase shifts (0, 90, 180, or 270 degrees). QPSK allows the signal to carry twice as much information as ordinary PSK using the same bandwidth.ARTM SOQPSK (Tier 1) Trellis Demodulator - Verilog Core Mar 2012 FeaturesFeatures This trellis demodulator IP can be targeted at a low cost FPGA for implementation of a high performance SOQPSK Tier 1 receiver. The efficient Viterbi algorithm is used to provide near theoretical bit-error-probability performance over a wide range of E b/N 0. CSS-905A Airborne Transmitter. The L3Harris CSS-905A is a multimode S-band telemetry transmitter. Its compact, power-efficient, low-weight, 4.2-cubic-inch design is ideal for missiles, aircraft, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and munitions. This proven transmitter design, which provides high shock, vibration and acceleration performance, is ...L3Harris is a premier manufacturer of missile and aircraft flight test instrumentation and complete airborne turnkey systems. Our airborne telemetry and flight test products gather and process critical information aboard spacecraft, aircraft, missiles, guided weapons, targets and UAVs. These products are used in defense and aerospace programs ...Nov 15, 2004 · For MIL-STD SOQPSK, we describe the optimum receiver corresponding to its TCM form and then propose a simplified receiver. The bit-error rate (BER) …SOQPSK-TG signals, taking advantage of pulse amplitude modulation decomposition with soft and hard outputs. We exploit this result to obtain a Viterbi algorithm (VA) for hardI'm trying to build an SOQPSK-TG signal in MATLAB/Octave. I am following this paper for formulas. I'm trying to generate a waveform for the phase, equation 2.4: Where q(t) is the phase pulse, equation 2.3: f is the partial-response frequency pulse (L=8 for SOQPSK-TG): and w is the window function: for SOQPSK-TG, we have the following values: In this paper, we report the bandwidth efficiency of SOQPSK for S-band airborne data links working at 4 Mbps rate [1]. Our results show that the SOQPSK-TG is the more bandwidth …where the default is 3200 bits, and SOQPSK/LDPC or STC/LDPC mode, where the default is the selected LDPC block size Network BW Expansion of ~1% BERT Chart Recorder View ) 8 BEP LR DQM Q 0.5 1.00 0 0.00 1E-01 1.11111E-01 5211 0.95 1E-02 1.01010E-02 10899 2.00 1E- 031.00100E- 16382 3.00 1E-04 1.00010E-04 21845 4.00phase noise. We start by developing coherent detectors for military standard SOQPSK (SOQPSK-MIL), which is full-response. For the partial response version used in aeronautical telemetry (SOQPSK-TG), the optimal detector requires a trellis of 512 states [8], we use a reduced-complexity option for SOQPSK-TG To provide a better shopping experience, our website uses cookies. Continuing use of the site implies consent. Learn More프리코더와 CPM 변조기로 구성된 SOQPSK-TG는 수신기 구조를 단순화하기 위해 송신기에 차등 부호기를 추가한 차등 프리코더 방식이 텔레메트리 표준으로 채택되었다.. (SOQPSK) – Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSProposed E-SOQPSK transmitter is a multi-mode modulator. It Symbol Timing Recovery for SOQPSK 21 Normalized timing variance • Accuracy of the feedback scheme measured numerically via simulation for the two versions of SOQPSK. • Simulations done for four cases: • SOQPSK-MIL with Loop BW 1x10-3 and 1x10-2. • SOQPSK-TG with Loop BW 1x10-3 and 1x10-2 along with PT. differential encoder, an SOQPSK precoder, and a CPM modulator. Therefore, the transmission model is the same as in [9], except that the present CPM modulator has a shaped frequency pulse and thus outputs 1We emphasize that SOQPSK, like other CPMs, is a nonlinear modulation format. In the present context, the word shaped refers to the SOQPSK/LDPC • STC/LDPC Of the aforemention (SOQPSK-TG), and the Advanced Range Telemetry (ARTM) Continuous Phase Modulation (CPM). Each of these methods offers constant, or nearly constant, envelope characteristics and are compatible with non-linear amplifiers with minimal spectral regrowth and minimal degradation of detection efficiency. The first three methods (FQPSK-B, FQPSK-JR, andA proposed Extensible SOQPSK modulation waveform brings the best of both OFDM modulation and single-carrier SOQPSK modulation to telemetry applications. TDMA is the current designation for what was form...

Continue Reading